Kubernetes

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KISS

If you are new to Kubernetes you might want to check out K3s first as it is easier to set up (less moving parts).

1 Master and 1 Node

Assumptions:

  • Master and Node are on the same network (in this example 10.1.1.0/24)
  • IP of the Master: 10.1.1.2
  • IP of the first Node: 10.1.1.3

Caveats:

  • this was only tested on 20.09pre215024.e97dfe73bba (Nightingale) (unstable)
  • this is probably not best-practice
    • for a production-grade cluster you shouldn't use easyCerts
  • If you experience inability to reach service CIDR from pods, disable firewall via networking.firewall.enable = false; or otherwise make sure that it doesn't interfere with packet forwarding.
  • Make sure to set docker0 in promiscuous mode ip link set docker0 promisc on

Master

Add to your configuration.nix:

{ config, pkgs, ... }:
let
  kubeMasterIP = "10.1.1.2";
  kubeMasterHostname = "api.kube";
  kubeMasterAPIServerPort = 6443;
in
{
  # resolve master hostname
  networking.extraHosts = "${kubeMasterIP} ${kubeMasterHostname}";

  # packages for administration tasks
  environment.systemPackages = with pkgs; [
    kompose
    kubectl
    kubernetes
  ];

  services.kubernetes = {
    roles = ["master" "node"];
    masterAddress = kubeMasterHostname;
    apiserverAddress = "https://${kubeMasterHostname}:${toString kubeMasterAPIServerPort}";
    easyCerts = true;
    apiserver = {
      securePort = kubeMasterAPIServerPort;
      advertiseAddress = kubeMasterIP;
    };

    # use coredns
    addons.dns.enable = true;

    # needed if you use swap
    kubelet.extraOpts = "--fail-swap-on=false";
  };
}

Apply your config (e.g. nixos-rebuild switch).

Link your kubeconfig to your home directory:

ln -s /etc/kubernetes/cluster-admin.kubeconfig ~/.kube/config

Now, executing kubectl cluster-info should yield something like this:

Kubernetes master is running at https://10.1.1.2
CoreDNS is running at https://10.1.1.2/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/kube-dns:dns/proxy

To further debug and diagnose cluster problems, use 'kubectl cluster-info dump'.

You should also see that the master is also a node using kubectl get nodes:

NAME       STATUS   ROLES    AGE   VERSION
direwolf   Ready    <none>   41m   v1.16.6-beta.0

Node

Add to your configuration.nix:

{ config, pkgs, ... }:
let
  kubeMasterIP = "10.1.1.2";
  kubeMasterHostname = "api.kube";
  kubeMasterAPIServerPort = 6443;
in
{
  # resolve master hostname
  networking.extraHosts = "${kubeMasterIP} ${kubeMasterHostname}";

  # packages for administration tasks
  environment.systemPackages = with pkgs; [
    kompose
    kubectl
    kubernetes
  ];

  services.kubernetes = let
    api = "https://${kubeMasterHostname}:${toString kubeMasterAPIServerPort}";
  in
  {
    roles = ["node"];
    masterAddress = kubeMasterHostname;
    easyCerts = true;

    # point kubelet and other services to kube-apiserver
    kubelet.kubeconfig.server = api;
    apiserverAddress = api;

    # use coredns
    addons.dns.enable = true;

    # needed if you use swap
    kubelet.extraOpts = "--fail-swap-on=false";
  };
}

Apply your config (e.g. nixos-rebuild switch).

According to the NixOS tests, make your Node join the cluster:

on the master, grab the apitoken

cat /var/lib/kubernetes/secrets/apitoken.secret

on the node, join the node with

echo TOKEN | nixos-kubernetes-node-join

After that, you should see your new node using kubectl get nodes:

NAME       STATUS   ROLES    AGE    VERSION
direwolf   Ready    <none>   62m    v1.16.6-beta.0
drake      Ready    <none>   102m   v1.16.6-beta.0

N Masters (HA)

Troubleshooting

systemctl status kubelet
systemctl status kube-apiserver
kubectl get nodes

Join Cluster not working

If you face issues while running the nixos-kubernetes-node-join script:

Restarting certmgr...
Job for certmgr.service failed because a timeout was exceeded.
See "systemctl status certmgr.service" and "journalctl -xe" for details.

Go investigate with journalctl -u certmgr:

... certmgr: loading from config file /nix/store/gj7qr7lp6wakhiwcxdpxwbpamvmsifhk-certmgr.yaml
... manager: loading certificates from /nix/store/4n41ikm7322jxg7bh0afjpxsd4b2idpv-certmgr.d
... manager: loading spec from /nix/store/4n41ikm7322jxg7bh0afjpxsd4b2idpv-certmgr.d/flannelClient.json
... [ERROR] cert: failed to fetch remote CA: failed to parse rootCA certs

In this case, cfssl could be overloaded.

Restarting cfssl on the master node should help: systemctl restart cfssl

Also, make sure that port 8888 is open on your master node.

DNS issues

Check if coredns is running via kubectl get pods -n kube-system:

NAME                       READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
coredns-577478d784-bmt5s   1/1     Running   2          163m
coredns-577478d784-bqj65   1/1     Running   2          163m

Run a pod to check with kubectl run curl --restart=Never --image=radial/busyboxplus:curl -i --tty:

If you don't see a command prompt, try pressing enter.

[ root@curl:/ ]$
nslookup google.com
Server:    10.0.0.254
Address 1: 10.0.0.254 kube-dns.kube-system.svc.cluster.local

Name:      google.com
Address 1: 2a00:1450:4016:803::200e muc12s04-in-x0e.1e100.net
Address 2: 172.217.23.14 lhr35s01-in-f14.1e100.net

In case DNS is still not working I found that sometimes, restarting services helps:

systemctl restart kube-proxy flannel kubelet

reset to a clean state

Sometimes it helps to have a clean state on all instances:

  • comment kubernetes-related code in configuration.nix
  • nixos-rebuild switch
  • clean up filesystem
    • rm -rf /var/lib/kubernetes/ /var/lib/etcd/ /var/lib/cfssl/ /var/lib/kubelet/
    • rm -rf /etc/kube-flannel/ /etc/kubernetes/
  • uncomment kubernetes-related code again
  • nixos-rebuild switch

Miscellaneous

Rook Ceph storage cluster

Chances are you want to setup a storage cluster using rook.

To do so, I found it necessary to change a few things (tested with rook v1.2):

  • you need the ceph kernel module: boot.kernelModules = [ "ceph" ];
  • change the root dir of the kubelet: kubelet.extraOpts = "--root-dir=/var/lib/kubelet";
  • reboot all your nodes
  • continue with the official quickstart guide
  • in operator.yaml, set CSI_FORCE_CEPHFS_KERNEL_CLIENT to false

NVIDIA

You can use NVIDIA's k8s-device-plugin.

Make nvidia-docker your default docker runtime:

virtualisation.docker = {
    enable = true;

    # use nvidia as the default runtime
    enableNvidia = true;
    extraOptions = "--default-runtime=nvidia";
};

Apply their Daemonset:

kubectl create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/NVIDIA/k8s-device-plugin/1.0.0-beta4/nvidia-device-plugin.yml

/dev/shm

Some applications need enough shared memory to work properly. Create a new volumeMount for your Deployment:

volumeMounts:
- mountPath: /dev/shm
  name: dshm

and mark its medium as Memory:

volumes:
- name: dshm
  emptyDir:
  medium: Memory

Tooling

There are various community projects aimed at facilitating working with Kubernetes combined with Nix:

References